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Cache (FLC)

Fundamental High Memory Bandwidth Technology

FLC is an architecture that redefines memory on modern devices. It offloads traditional memory usage to less expensive flash memory and solid-state drives while using only a small amount of expensive DRAM as cache. It dramatically reduces the size, cost, and power requirements of anything from personal devices to generative AI capable servers.



  • High-bandwidth, moderate-capacity DRAM inserted as final-level cache (FLC) for enhancing the performance of standard DDR memory. Additionally, the DDR memory can be used as a massive workload cache to hide the latency of storage (e.g., SSD) when used as a final memory.
  • Optimal combination of bandwidth, latency, capacity, and power dissipation
  • Economic & energy-efficient way to build petabyte scale accessible DRAM/SSD pool

Massive Cache


  • Very High (>95%) Hit Rate for FLC-1 High Bandwidth Cache; FLC-2 ~100% hit rate
  • Fully-associative look-up engine with gigantic entries (e.g., 32K/64K for 128MB cache)
  • Large cache line (e.g., 2KB, 4KB, 16KB, or larger)
  • Multi-level (2 or more) caching
  • Effective in inspecting & managing (= masking or mapping out) defective or failing memory addresses
  • Cache DRAM or HBM3 for FLC level 1

Final-Level Cache (FLC)
Fundamental High Memory Bandwidth Technology

Memory Latency When Fully Active (Without FLC)

Low latency speed (=Published Spec., e.g. ~60ns) when idle
Big latency (e.g. >200ns) when fully active

Why High-Bandwidth
FLC Wins

Sufficient bandwidth available in FLC1 for full memory access requests
Economic & energy-efficient way to build gigantic total (~peta bytes) accessible DRAM/SSD pool

What Happens
When FLC 1 Misses?

Low latency from almost idle DDR for FLC 2
Much lower than conventional implementation without FLC1
Low FLC2 activity (Few % of Time when FLC1 Misses)


Cache Hit Rate

FLC Consumer Benchmark


Test Conditions: GPU 12 Core / Quad-A77 2GHz / Quad-A55 1.6GHz / CMN-600 1066MHz / LPDDR4X 3466MTS / IPM 1733MTS Enable/Disable
Software: Linux / FXBench 5.0- Offscreen
Note: Similar Conclusion on Yolo V3

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FLC Technology Group is redefining computing architecture with innovative, scalable memory architecture.